An essay has been defined in a variety of ways. One definition is a "prose composition with a focused subject of discussion" or a "long, systematic discourse".
Origins[ edit ] The title is a reference to a fragment attributed to the Ancient Greek poet Archilochus: In Erasmus 's Adagia fromthe expression is recorded as Multa novit vulpes, verum echinus unum magnum.
The fable of The Fox and the Cat embodies the same idea. Berlin expands upon this idea to divide writers and thinkers into two categories: Turning to TolstoyBerlin contends that at first glance, Tolstoy escapes definition into one of the two groups.
He postulates that while Tolstoy's talents are those of a fox, his beliefs are that one ought to be a hedgehog and so Tolstoy's own voluminous assessments of his own work are misleading.
Berlin goes on to use this idea of Tolstoy as a basis for an analysis of the theory of history that Tolstoy presents in his novel War and Peace. In the latter half of the essay, Berlin illuminates Tolstoy by an extended comparison between him and the early 19th-century thinker Joseph de Maistrea comparison that gains in piquancy because while Tolstoy and de Maistre held violently contrasting views on more superficial matters, they held some profoundly similar views about the fundamental nature of existence and the limits of a rational, scientific approach to it.
In the final few paragraphs of the essay, Berlin reasserts his thesis that Tolstoy was by nature a fox but by conviction a hedgehog and goes on to say that the division within himself caused him great pain at the end of his life.
The essay has been published separately and as part of the collection Russian Thinkers, edited by Henry Hardy and Aileen Kelly.
The essay also appears in a widely-representative anthology of Berlin's essays, The Proper Study of Mankind. Influence[ edit ] Some authors Michael Walzerfor example have used the same pattern of description for Berlin himself, as a person who knows many things, compared to the purported narrowness of many other contemporary political philosophers.
Berlin's former student, Canadian philosopher Charles Taylorhas been dubbed a hedgehog by Berlin and readily admitted to it in an interview after receiving the Templeton Prize.
Tetlocka political psychology professor at the University of Pennsylvaniadrew heavily on this distinction in his exploration of the accuracy of experts and forecasters in various fields especially politics in his book Expert Political Judgment: How Good Is It?
How Can We Know?. The historian Joseph Ellisin his Founding Brothers about key figures of the American Revolution, uses Berlin's "Hedgehog and Fox" concept in evaluating George Washingtonnoting that "Washington was an archetypal hedgehog.
And the one big thing he knew was that America's future as a nation lay to the West, in its development over the next century of a continental empire," which was one of the reasons, according to Ellis, of Washington being devoted to construction of canals.
Collins refers to the story in his book Good to Great where he clearly shows his preference towards Hedgehog mentality. The artist Richard Serra referenced the name in the title of his sculpture installed at Princeton University campus in Music historian Berthold Hoeckner applies and extends Berlin's distinction in his essay "Wagner and the Origin of Evil.
He cites the work of Philip E.
Tetlock on the accuracy of political forecasts in the United States during the Cold War while he was a professor of political science at the University of California, Berkeley. Silver's news website, fivethirtyeight.
New American Library; New York, Free judgement papers, essays, and research papers. Stereotyping: The Judgement We Make About People - The judgments we make about people, events or places are based on our own direct impressions. Summary: Analyzes the novel "The Judgement" by Franz Kafka, which discusses the struggle of father-son relationships.
Common Application Essay Prompts: A Guide. Looking for help with the Common Application Essay? Below CEA’s Founder, Stacey Brook, .
About the Text of the printed book. The text of William Kingdon Clifford’s “The Ethics of Belief” is based upon the first edition of Lectures and Essays, Macmillan and Co., , edited by Leslie Stephen and Frederick benjaminpohle.com text of William James’ “The Will to Believe” is based upon the first edition of The Will to Believe and other essays in popular philosophy, Longmans.
It may be hard to write a type of essay for the first time. If this is your first time to write a personal reflective essay, you can refer to the reflection essay example below. Judgement Essays: Over , Judgement Essays, Judgement Term Papers, Judgement Research Paper, Book Reports.
ESSAYS, term and research papers available for UNLIMITED access.