Five major structures of the brain and their functions

In Depth Tutorials and Information Overview of the Central Nervous System Gross Anatomy of the Brain Part 1 Gross Anatomy of the Brain Neuroscience is a composite of several disciplines including neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, neurology, neuropathology, neuropharmacology, behavioral sciences, and cell biology. An overview of the structural organization of the nervous system is helpful when beginning to study the neurosciences. However, first it would be useful to define some basic terms that will be essential for understanding the anatomy of the nervous system.

Five major structures of the brain and their functions

A phenotypic characteristic, acquired during growth and development, that is not genetically based and therefore cannot be passed on to the next generation for example, the large muscles of a weightlifter. Any heritable characteristic of an organism that improves its ability to survive and reproduce in its environment.

Also used to describe the process of genetic change within a population, as influenced by natural selection. A graph of the average fitness of a population in relation to the frequencies of genotypes in it.

Peaks on the landscape correspond to genotypic frequencies at which the average fitness is high, valleys to genotypic frequencies at which the average fitness is low.

Brain Structures and Their Functions | Trachea- functions to conduct air between the larynx and primary bronchi. Bronchi- conducts air into each and out of the each lung's five lobes.
Ventricles The shape and size of the brain varies greatly between species, and identifying common features is often difficult. Brain tissue in its natural state is too soft to work with, but it can be hardened by immersion in alcohol or other fixativesand then sliced apart for examination of the interior.

Also called a fitness surface. A behavior has adaptive logic if it tends to increase the number of offspring that an individual contributes to the next and following generations. If such a behavior is even partly genetically determined, it will tend to become widespread in the population.

Then, even if circumstances change such that it no longer provides any survival or reproductive advantage, the behavior will still tend to be exhibited -- unless it becomes positively disadvantageous in the new environment.

The term can also be applied to larger groups of organisms, as in "the adaptive radiation of mammals. A mode of coping with competition or environmental conditions on an evolutionary time scale.

Species adapt when succeeding generations emphasize beneficial characteristics. A person who believes that the existence of a god or creator and the nature of the universe is unknowable.


An umbrella term for various simple organisms that contain chlorophyll and can therefore carry out photosynthesis and live in aquatic habitats and in moist situations on land. The term has no direct taxonomic significance. Algae range from macroscopic seaweeds such as giant kelp, which frequently exceeds 30 m in length, to microscopic filamentous and single-celled forms such as Spirogyra and Chlorella.

One of the alternative forms of a gene. For example, if a gene determines the seed color of peas, one allele of that gene may produce green seeds and another allele produce yellow seeds.

Discovering the Brain.

In a diploid cell there are usually two alleles of any one gene one from each parent. Within a population there may be many different alleles of a gene; each has a unique nucleotide sequence. The relation between the size of an organism and the size of any of its parts.

For example, an allometric relation exists between brain size and body size, such that in this case animals with bigger bodies tend to have bigger brains.

Five major structures of the brain and their functions

Allometric relations can be studied during the growth of a single organism, between different organisms within a species, or between organisms in different species. Speciation that occurs when two or more populations of a species are geographically isolated from one another sufficiently that they do not interbreed.

Living in separate places. The unit molecular building block of proteinswhich are chains of amino acids in a certain sequence.Click on the words to learn what these structures do: Thalamus; Hypothalamus; Amygdala; Hippocampus.

Brain Stem: Underneath the limbic system is the brain stem. This structure is responsible for basic vital life functions such as breathing, heartbeat, and blood pressure.

acquired trait: A phenotypic characteristic, acquired during growth and development, that is not genetically based and therefore cannot be passed on to the next generation (for example, the large. But, centrosomes, made of centrioles, are, also, the critical way the neuron organizes the spreading and constantly changing microtubule structure.

In fact, the centriole determines where the nucleus sits in the cell as well as organizing spatial structure of organelles in the cell (golgi, endoplasmic reticulum, etc). The cerebrum also houses five out of five of the major areas of the brain. Frontal Lobe The frontal lobe is the last portion of the brain that fully develops and is not fully “grown” until after a person passes from adolescence into adulthood.

The human body is everything that makes up, well, you. The basic parts of the human body are the head, neck, torso, arms and legs. Our bodies consist of a number of biological systems that carry.

The human brain is the central organ of the human nervous system, and with the spinal cord makes up the central nervous brain consists of the cerebrum, the brainstem and the controls most of the activities of the body, processing, integrating, and coordinating the information it receives from the sense organs, and .

Brain - Wikipedia