We respect your privacy. You memorize the theorists, try to memorize what they stand for and hope to replay it successfully on nursing school exams. And the whole time, if you are like me, you wonder, "what am I going to do with this when I graduate?
Learning theories develop hypotheses that describe how this process takes place. The scientific study of learning started in earnest at the dawn of the 20th century. The major concepts and theories of learning include behaviourist theories, cognitive psychology, constructivism, social constructivism, experiential learning, multiple intelligence, and situated learning theory and community of practice.
Behaviourism The behaviourist perspectives of learning originated in the early s, and became dominant in early 20th century.
The basic idea of behaviourism is that learning consists of a Influential theorists in behaviour due to the acquisition, reinforcement and application of associations between stimuli from the environment and observable responses of the individual.
Behaviourists are interested in measurable changes in behaviour. Thorndike, one major behaviourist theorist, put forward that 1 a response to a stimulus is reinforced when followed by a positive rewarding effect, and 2 a response to a stimulus becomes stronger by exercise and repetition.
In his view, rewarding the right parts of the more complex behaviour reinforces it, and encourages its recurrence. Therefore, reinforcers control the occurrence of the desired partial behaviours.
Learning is understood as the step-by-step or successive approximation of the intended partial behaviours through the use of reward and punishment. Cognitive psychology Cognitive psychology Influential theorists initiated in the late s, and contributed to the move away from behaviourism.
People are no longer viewed as collections of responses to external stimuli, as understood by behaviourists, but information processors. Cognitive psychology paid attention to complex mental phenomena, ignored by behaviourists, and was influenced by the emergence of the computer as an information-processing device, which became analogous to the human mind.
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In cognitive psychology, learning is understood as the acquisition of knowledge: Therefore, its preferred methods of instruction are lecturing and reading textbooks; and, at its most extreme, the learner is a passive recipient of knowledge by the teacher.
Constructivism Constructivism emerged in the s and s, giving rise to the idea that learners are not passive recipients of information, but that they actively construct their knowledge in interaction with the environment and through the reorganization of their mental structures.
Learners are therefore viewed as sense-makers, not simply recording given information but interpreting it. The growing evidence in support of the constructive nature of learning was also in line with and backed by the earlier work of influential theorists such as Jean Piaget and Jerome Bruner.
Social learning theory A well-known social learning theory has been developed by Albert Bandura, who works within both cognitive and behavioural frameworks that embrace attention, memory and motivation. His theory of learning suggests that people learn within a social context, and that learning is facilitated through concepts such as modeling, observational learning and imitation.
The importance of positive role modeling on learning is well documented. Criticism against the information-processing constructivist approach to cognition and learning became stronger as the pioneer work of Vygotsky as well as anthropological and ethnographic research by scholars like Rogoff and Lave came to the fore and gathered support.
The essence of this criticism was that the information-processing constructivism saw cognition and learning as processes occurring within the mind in isolation from the surrounding and interaction with it.
Knowledge was considered as self-sufficient and independent of the contexts in which it finds itself.
In the new view, cognition and learning are understood as interactions between the individual and a situation; knowledge is considered as situated and is a product of the activity, context and culture in which it is formed and utilized. Experiential learning Experiential learning theories build on social and constructivist theories of learning, but situate experience at the core of the learning process.
They aim to understand the manners in which experiences — whether first or second hand — motivate learners and promote their learning. Rogers put forward the following insight: He supports a dynamic, continuous process of change where new learning results in and affects learning environments.
This dynamic process of change is often considered in literatures on organizational learning. His theory also challenges the understanding of intelligence as dominated by a single general ability. Although his work is speculative, his theory is appreciated by teachers in broadening their conceptual framework beyond the traditional confines of skilling, curriculum and testing.
The recognition of multiple intelligences, for Gardner, is a means to achieving educational goals rather than an educational goal in and of itself.List of psychoanalytical theorists.
Jump to navigation Jump to search. Some the most influential psychoanalysts and theorists, philosophers and literary critics who were or are influenced by psychoanlaysis include: Karl Abraham - psychoanalyst; Nicolas Abraham - psychoanalyst. Influential Early Childhood Education Theorists Timeline created by Moeli In History.
Mar 28, John Amos Comenius Believed education began in the earliest days of childhood and continued through life. Philosophy attempted to incorporate religion and philosophy to education. Dec 01, · Influential Theorists: Andre Bazin – The Ontology Of The Photographic Image Andre Bazin is undoubtedly a famous figure in film criticism and film theory.
If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of . Influential Sociological Theorists- Chapter Summary We will make sure you understand the important information about sociological theorists by providing you with many different resources.
Short, informative lessons will help you examine the theories of these professionals and their contributions to the sociology field.
Find this Pin and more on Influential theorists by nicola. Jerome Seymour Bruner is a psychologist who has made significant contributions to human cognitive psychology and cognitive learning theory in educational psychology, as well as to history and to the general philosophy of education.