Babies are born without knee caps. They appear when the child reaches years of age. The knee is the largest articular joint in the body.
Lateral and posterior aspects of right knee Articular surfaces of femur Articular surfaces of tibia The knee is a modified hinge jointa type of synovial jointwhich is composed of three functional compartments: The posterolateral corner of the knee is an area that has recently been the subject of renewed scrutiny and research.
The knee is the largest joint and one of the most important joints in the body. It plays an essential role in movement related to carrying the body weight in horizontal running and walking and vertical jumping directions. At birth, the kneecap is just formed from cartilageand this will ossify change to bone between the ages of three and five years.
Because it is the largest sesamoid bone in the human body, the ossification process takes significantly longer.
These diverge slightly distally and posteriorly, with the lateral condyle being wider in front than at the back while the medial condyle is of more constant width.
This diminishing radius produces a series of Knee injury midpoints i. The resulting series of transverse axes permit the sliding and rolling motion in the flexing knee while ensuring the collateral ligaments are sufficiently lax to permit the rotation associated with the curvature of the medial condyle about a vertical axis.
Articular capsule of the knee joint The articular capsule has a synovial and a fibrous membrane separated by fatty deposits.
Anteriorly, the synovial membrane is attached on the margin of the cartilage both on the femur and the tibia, but on the femur, the suprapatellar bursa or recess extends the joint space proximally.
Between these two extensions, the synovial membrane passes in front of the two cruciate ligaments at the center of the joint, thus forming a pocket direct inward.
Knee bursae Numerous bursae surround the knee joint. The largest communicative bursa is the suprapatellar bursa described above. Four considerably smaller bursae are located on the back of the knee. Two non-communicative bursae are located in front of the patella and below the patellar tendonand others are sometimes present.
Cartilage ensures supple knee movement. There are two types of joint cartilage in the knees: Fibrous cartilage has tensile strength and can resist pressure. Hyaline cartilage covers the surface along which the joints move. Cartilage will wear over the years. Cartilage has a very limited capacity for self-restoration.
The newly formed tissue will generally consist of a large part of fibrous cartilage of lesser quality than the original hyaline cartilage. As a result, new cracks and tears will form in the cartilage over time. Menisci[ edit ] The articular disks of the knee-joint are called menisci because they only partly divide the joint space.
Strong fibers run along the menisci from one attachment to the other, while weaker radial fibers are interlaced with the former. The menisci are flattened at the center of the knee joint, fused with the synovial membrane laterally, and can move over the tibial surface.
Anterolateral aspect of right knee Anteromedial aspect of right knee The ligaments surrounding the knee joint offer stability by limiting movements and, together with the menisci and several bursae, protect the articular capsule.Continued What Does a Knee Injury Feel Like?
Obviously, it hurts! But the type of pain and where you feel it can vary, depending on what the problem is. Knee pain can be caused by injuries, mechanical problems, types of arthritis and other problems.
Injuries A knee injury can affect any of the ligaments, tendons or fluid-filled sacs (bursae) that surround your knee joint as well as the bones, cartilage and ligaments that form the joint itself. The knee is a hinge joint that has a simple purpose.
It needs to flex (bend) or extend (straighten) to allow the body to perform many activities, like running, walking, kicking, and benjaminpohle.come standing up from a chair if your knees couldn't bend. Common Knee Injuries. Acute knee injuries occur suddenly - from falling awkwardly, a forced twisting of the knee, a blow to the knee, etc.
Acute knee injuries include knee sprain (torn knee ligaments - usually the acl), torn knee cartilage (torn meniscus), ruptured knee tendon, and knee fracture.. Overuse knee injuries are usually caused by increasing the intensity or duration of an activity. Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is the most commonly injured knee benjaminpohle.com connects the thigh bone to the shin bone.
Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) also links the thigh bone to the shin.
The knee is one of the most common body parts to be injured. Types of common knee injuries include sprains, strains, bursitis, dislocations, fractures, meniscus tears, and overuse injuries.; Knee injuries are generally caused by twisting or bending force applied to the knee, or a direct blow, such as from sports, falls, or accidents.