During the time of the genocide, the Ottoman Empire bordered Bulgaria and Greece in the west, the Mediterranean Sea in the south and southwest, the Black Sea in the north, Iraq and Syria in the southwest, and the Russian empire in the east and northeast. It encompasses only a small area of the land that was historically the Armenian homeland. Armenia was the first nation to adopt Christianity as a state religion in C.
See European Monetary Institute. Employment The EU 's policy on employment goes little further than monitoring it, regulating some of its aspects and expressing concern that it is not in more plentiful supply.
There are policies on vocational training, regional aid through the structural funds and hours of employment through the Working Time Directive. In addition, the Social Chapter of the Maastricht Treaty committed the signatories to measures on workplace conditions, while the Treaty of Rome proclaims the objective of a 'high level of employment '.
The culmination of much fruitless discussion was the formulation of an Employment Chapter in the Treaty of Amsterdam. This, however, amounted only to phrase-making, since there is within the EU no consensus on the appropriate policy response to the problem.
France essentially casts itself as the opponent of neo- liberalismoften advocating public-sector job-creation schemes and harmonisation of tax and social policyso as to deny competitive advantage to less costly countries.
At the other extreme, since Margaret Thatcher 's time the UK has advocated privatisation, deregulation, low taxes and flexible labour markets.
Germany mistrusts the spending of taxpayers' money on artificial employment but has long regarded statutory job protection and consensual employer-union relations as central to its social market economy. A ' third way ', pursued by The Netherlandshas been successful in reducing nominal unemployment through voluntarily negotiated wage restraint, reduced hours and early retirement, albeit at the cost of falling real wages and disguised joblessness in the form of widespread disability and sickness leave.
The overall European verdict on employment strategies is less clear than it would have been in the s and early s. Then the ' Rhine model ' appeared over the years to have outperformed the Anglo-Saxon model, at least as practised by the UK. But there is growing agreement that the problem of joblessness is of structural origin.
Thus when Prime Minister Tony Blair announced in that the UK would renounce its opt-out from the Social Chapterhe spoke from strength in calling for labour market reform throughout the EUfor the economy that he had inherited from the Conservatives was among the most effective in Europewith unemployment doubtless helped by cyclical factors running at half the EU average.
Blair 's repeated subsequent appeals for a free market approach to improve competitiveness met with a cool response in the capitals of Europe. Beneath the surface, however, business has been more flexible than governments, and there is less rigidity in Continental employment practices than is often assumed.
France regulates lay-offs, enforcing consultation with works councils, but although severance is expensive and slow the courts rarely block redundancies. To avoid anti-dismissal laws in Spain and Germany - and high social security costs in several countries - there has been a marked increase in part-time and short-term employment throughout the EU.
Infor example, over one-third of all jobs in Spain were filled by temporary workers, and nearly two-fifths of employment in The Netherlands was part-time. This 'empty chair' policy was occasioned by the ending of a transition period in the Common Marketafter which a range of decisions, previously requiring unanimitywould be taken by qualified majority voting.
De Gaullewho in had unilaterally vetoed the UK 's application to join the EEChad already been fighting with the Commission president, Walter Hallsteinover the growing power of the bureaucracy in Brussels. The last straw was Hallstein 's supranational zeal - in particular, his proposals to make the Community financially self-sufficient, to extend the budgetary powers of the Parliament and to revise the financing of the CAP.
The dispute paralysed the Community for six months and was not resolved until Januarythrough the ' Luxembourg Compromise ', which essentially condoned the French position and restored the unanimity principle as the ultimate recourse to protect national interests, albeit recognising that this constituted a breach of the Treaty of Rome.
The blueprint the 'Snake' set out in the resultant Werner Report did not, however, succeed. France was unwilling to surrender more than a modicum of financial autonomy. Moreover, the collapse of the dollar-based Bretton Woods international monetary system infollowed by an unprecedented rise in oil prices and global inflation, led to unstable foreign exchange markets in which no artificial attempt to link European currencies could have expected to survive without the sturdiest of political and institutional underpinnings.
The revised scheme, known as the European Monetary Systemwas designed to bring about a zone of currency stability in Europe through the Exchange Rate Mechanism ERM and a new quasi-currency not legal tender but usable in wholesale transactions called the ECUor European Currency Unit.
The ERM came into effect in More sophisticated and more firmly backed by central banks than the earlier arrangements, it lasted more or less unscathed for some 12 years, although the ECUwhose value was based on a basket of currencies, did not match the strength of the D-Mark.
But in a committee of central bankers and economists headed by Jacques Delors made recommendations for a concrete three-stage process of harmonising national economic policies, fixing exchange rates and finally adopting a single currency. Alone among European leaders, and despite being undermined by dissent in her own cabinetMargaret Thatcher attempted to stand out against these developments.
The Maastricht Treatysigned inclosely followed the Delors proposals. Stage One of EMU would involve the abolition of exchange controls, the entry of all currencies into the narrow band of the ERM and steps towards economic convergence.
Stage Two, starting inwould see the creation of a European Monetary Institute and the granting of independence to national central banks, paving the way for a European Central Bank ECB free of government interference.
In Stage Three, from which the UK and Denmark negotiated opt-out s, countries meeting the ' convergence criteria ' would fix their rates irrevocably and move towards the transformation of the ECU into a genuine currency, with a target date of but some allowance for slippage.
The UK had reluctantly participated in the ERM for the first time in Octobera period which coincided with a domestic recession, German reunification and the inauguration of an increasingly rigid policy of European currency management, which in practice meant locking every country's exchange rate to the D-Mark.
A series of disasters ensued.A rare cloud-free view of a wide area of Western Europe. This Aqua satellite image was captured on 30 August Skies were clear from the Netherlands in the north to Italy in the south, revealing several of Europe's famous natural and man-made features.
The EU and International Conflicts. Several EU member states speak similar language, as enshrined, for instance, in the UK development agency’s “drivers of conflict” template. communication to take this approach to the next level will be of crucial significance given the range and depth of conflicts that now claim the union’s.
European Union law is the system of laws operating within the member states of the European benjaminpohle.com EU has political institutions and social and economic policies. According to its Court of Justice, the EU represents "a new legal order of international law".
The EU's legal foundations are the Treaty on European Union and the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, unanimously . and language variations are in contact, often resulting in language conflicts.
Language policy aims at solving these conflicts and reaching a compromise by exercising direct, explicit and conscious social control, which stems from 5 Language policy in the European Union.
HU. The EU is active in a wide range of topics, from human rights to transport and trade.
Learn more on what the EU does in these areas. Language policy in the European Union 25 If languages are perceived as part of a linguistic market (Haugen , Bourdieu , Calvet , Cooper , de Swaan ,), it follows that in.