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In the 9th century, Muslim inventor Abbas ibn Firnas was the first to design and test a flying machine, hundreds of years before da Vinci drew plans of his own. Hospitals as we know them today believed to have come from 9th century Egypt. Coffee, computers and piston engines - could we imagine a world without them?
These are intricate parts of every day life for most of us and the knowledge that led to them was either invented by or passed down through the ancient Muslim world. That is the theme of an exhibit in London's Science Museum and it's a far cry from the view held by some that the Muslim and Western World represent a "clash of civilizations.
It's called "Kawha"- where it was first developed as a drink - in the Arabian Peninsula, in today's Yemen. Professor Salim al-Hassani of the University of Manchester explains the coffee beans were actually brought to Yemen from the Horn of Africa, from Ethiopia.
The sheep seemed to like the beans. So the young man took the beans to Yemen - the story goes - and the drink was developed and spread like wildfire. And there were many other inventions or innovations passed on by the early Muslim world from the 7th Century onward, says Hassani.
This was done in the year by a young lady called Fatima al-Fihri in the city of Fez in Morocco," al-Hassani said. It's called inventions: The exhibit in London focuses on scientific or technological inventions and advances that changed our world - from some of the earliest universities, to innovations in medicine, hygiene, pumps, and water wheels.
Some says these important achievements have been forgotten amid the news often coming out of the Muslim world today that focuses so much on strife and terrorism. But, ask just about anyone on the streets of, say, Cairo or Damascus today and they haven't forgotten - they'll readily tell you about Islam's glory days - not just its conquests but its cultural, scientific and technological innovations.
A time when Muslim scholars and inventors were at the forefront, says Hassani. One exhibit exemplifies that mixture - a giant clock featuring an Indian elephant and Chinese dragons and using ancient Greek water works.
The one here is a replica of the original designed by the Muslim inventor, mathematician and engineer al-Jazari in the early 13th Century. It has all the elements of different civilizations and I like it as a scientist because it shows that science doesn't have to be boring and sterile and plain, but it can be decorative and it can also pay homage to the cultures that bring it forward.
In general, our numbers are known as "Arabic numerals" today, but it wasn't always so, says professor Hassani. And, the number "0" for example - "zephir" in Arabic - was used first by early Arab scholars as an integral part of mathematical equations.
And that's part of the all important formula of zeros and ones that was crucial to the development of computers and other new technology.Breaking science and technology news from around the world. Exclusive stories and expert analysis on space, technology, health, physics, life and Earth New Scientist Live Breaking science and technology news from around the world.
Exclusive stories and expert analysis on space, technology, health, physics, life and Earth. For example, AT&T's Bell Laboratories spearheaded the American technological revolution with a series of inventions including the first practical light emitted diode, the transistor, the C programming language, and the Unix computer operating system.
It was not just the Europeans who contributed, but there are some substantial number of landmark inventions by American inventors.
During periods of technological and scientific expansion, it has often seemed that a plateau has been reached, only for a new discovery to shatter old paradigms completely. The most famous example was when, in , Lord Kelvin declared physics to be more or less over, just a few years before Einstein proved him comprehensively wrong. The 25 Best Inventions of people typically have to shell out thousands of dollars—not just for a headset (like the $ HTC Vive), but for a computer that’s powerful enough to. Similarly, the use of exclusions does not effectively differentiate between technological inventions and non-technological inventions. And just as a scientific theory that violates the second law of thermodynamics is wrong, if a definition of technology violates that rule, then it’s wrong as well.
Eli Whitney, Jr., a pioneer in . Inventions and scientific discoveries that occurred during the Industrial revolution can be held responsible for the progress of the world, in which we live today.
Read on to know more about these inventions and discoveries. It was not just the Europeans who contributed, but there are some substantial number of landmark inventions by.
The ideas are sorted into three sections: the connection of science and technology, the principles of technology itself, and the connection of technology and society.
Chapter 8, The Designed World, presents principles relevant to some of the key technologies of today's world.