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The work is therefore titled Lunyu meaning "edited conversations" or "selected speeches" i. A Han dynasty writer Wang Chong however claimed that the Analects that existed during the Han dynasty was incomplete and formed only a part of a much larger work.
The Lu version contained twenty chapters, and the Qi version contained twenty-two chapters, including two chapters not found in the Lu version. Of the twenty chapters that both versions had in common, the Lu version had more passages.
Each version had its own masters, schools, and transmitters. The new version did not contain the two extra chapters found in the Qi version, but it split one chapter found in the Lu and Qi versions in two, so it had twenty-one chapters, and the order of the chapters was different. Of these twenty-seven differences, the received text only agrees with the old text version in two places.
This text was recognized by Zhang Yu's contemporaries and by subsequent Han scholars as superior to either individual version, and is the text that is recognized as the Analects today. Archaeologists have since discovered two handwritten copies of the Analects that were written around 50 BC, during the Western Han dynasty.
They are known as the " Dingzhou Analects", and the " Pyongyang Analects", after the location of the tombs in which they were found.
The Dingzhou Analects was discovered inbut no transcription of its contents was published until The Pyongyang Analects was discovered in Academic access to the Pyongyang Analects has been highly restricted, and no academic study on it was published until It was further damaged in an earthquake shortly after it was recovered, and the surviving text is just under half the size of the received text of the Analects.
Of the sections that survive, the Dingzhou Analects is shorter than the received Analects, implying that the text of the Analects was still in the process of expansion when the Dingzhou Analects was entombed. There was evidence that "additions" may have been made to the manuscript after it had been completed, indicating that the writer may have become aware of at least one other version of the Analects and included "extra" material for the sake of completeness.
The content of the Pyongyang Analects is similar to the Dingzhou Analects; but, because of the secrecy and isolationism of the North Korean government, only a very cursory study of it has been made available to international scholars, and its contents are not completely known outside of North Korea.
Scholars do not agree about whether either the Dingzhou Analects or the Pyongyang Analects represent the Lu version, the Qi version, the old text version, or a different version that was independent of these three traditions.
During the reign of Han Wudi —87 BCwhen the Chinese government began promoting Confucian studies, only the Five Classics were considered by the government to be canonical jing. The Analects was considered secondary as it was thought to be merely a collection of Confucius's oral "commentary" zhuan on the Five Classics.
During the Eastern Han, the heir apparent was provided a tutor specifically to teach him the Analects. The growing importance of the Analects was recognized when the Five Classics was expanded to the "Seven Classics": There have been many commentaries on the Analects since the Han dynasty, but the two which have been most influential have been the Collected Explanations of the Analects Lunyu Jijie by He Yan c.
His personal interpretation of the Lunyu was guided by his belief that Daoism and Confucianism complemented each other, so that by studying both in a correct manner a scholar could arrive at a single, unified truth. Arguing for the ultimate compatibility of Daoist and Confucian teachings, he argued that "Laozi [in fact] was in agreement with the Sage" sic.Welcome to eAuditNet.
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